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Female feticide is the process in which people can find out the sex of the foetus and undergo an abortion if it is a girl child. This act of killing innocent girl children inside the womb of a mother is illegal but still many people continue to practice it. This topic was highlighted by the results of the 2011 census; the census reports showed that the sex ratio is reduced to only 918 women for 1000 men in India from 976 in 1961. This much decline in sex ratio means that not only the human rights of a girl are deprived but her right to live is also impoverished.

‘Death Before Birth’ – Factors Responsible For Female Foeticide In India

Factors Leading To Female Foeticide

Female foeticide is taking place in India for three major factors:

Economic Factors

  • Rural households who have landed property have a clear negative relationship between child sex ratio and their income level.  In some areas wage levels are still based on the gender of the worker, female workers are paid less than male workers for the same work.
  • For this pernicious phenomenon, a lot of answers are with the cultural politics of dowry. With the turn of the century, the records of dowry deaths are also increasing. In our society marriage and pre-marriage are considered as consumption-oriented reproductive journeys and brides are described as commodities. Nearly about 7500 brides are murdered due to a lack of full payment of dowry and many are committing suicides for dowry.
  • Female foeticide has become a field of accumulation in today’s world. Female foeticide may cost two to three months earning of an individual, while dowry requires the collection of several years. This fact appears to be an equilibrium between the service provider and the seeker. An organization estimated that the annual turnover of the foeticide industry has increased from 77 million dollars to 244 million dollars.  A doctor who does not want to practice sex-selective abortions but is engaged in it due to unhealthy competition in the health care center. If they did not provide sex-selective abortions then some other doctors would have provided the same services. 
Due to these economic factors, females are never desired.

Socio-ritual Factors

Socio-ritual Factors

Informs of mental, physical, and sexual assaults, along with traumas in this societal structure females are endangered to brutalities of the male. Every parent with a girl child in this patriarchal and affectionate society is at risk for the mentioned causes. At the time of the funeral ceremony of the parents, a son needs to be present there. These types of socio-ritual factors include orthodox society norms and illiteracy which leads to the craving for the male body and discarding of females again and again.

Technological Factors

The killing of girl foetus has become the latest trend in long-established gender bias. With time we are civilized and our process of killing girl babies has also become civilized. Low-cost technologies like ultrasound are also present for sex-based abortion of the female fetus, and sex ratio is decreasing every year.

Technological Factors


The drawbacks of the Indian legislature are evident in the rapid decrease of gender ratio. Female foeticide and abortion can never be stopped by supply sides and legal enforcements. Even if direct female infanticides are not there, indirect infanticides must take a stand unless or until our conceptions regarding social, economic, and ritual reasons about girls are changed. Let us all unite at Muskan an NGO and change all the reasons responsible for female foeticide.